domingo, 28 de septiembre de 2014

Por debajo de la realidad

El 28 de septiembre de 1966 moría el escritor, poeta, ensayista y teórico (principal exponente) del surrealismo André Breton.

El surrealismo constituyó la más influyente de las vanguardias artísticas del siglo pasado. De espíritu irreverente y marcadamente antiburgués, fue –con su fuerte cuestionamiento social y el intento de cambiar la vida a través del arte– el más intenso de los gestos de ruptura artística.
Golconda, pintura típicamente surrealista del belga René Magritte

Desde la aparición del Primer Manifiesto en 1925, el surrealismo logró una inesperada repercusión. De París, cuna del movimiento, pasó a Inglaterra, Bélgica, España, Suiza, Alemania, Checoslovaquia, Yugoslavia, e incluso a países de África, Asia (Japón) y América (México, Brasil, Estados Unidos, Argentina). Se imprimió sobre variadas manifestaciones culturales como la literatura, la pintura (observable en las obras de Salvador Dalí, Max Ernst, Giorgio de Chirico, René Magritte y Wilfredo Lam) y el cine (Luis Buñuel).

El surrealismo se basó en los restos del dadaísmo, tomando especialmente lo que había de reivindicador de una belleza convulsiva, en frontal rechazo a la estética tradicional. En el Primer Manifiesto estableció Breton los principios del movimiento: automatismo psíquico; importancia de los sueños y las alucinaciones, y creación libre, sin las limitaciones del mundo real. Con el tiempo, sus miembros fueron dejando de lado la búsqueda exclusivamente artística y psicológica, para involucrarse más con la política y el devenir social. El líder de la nueva etapa fue Trostsky.

Tristan Tzara, otro de los hombres clave del surrealismo, resumió -casi 50 años más tarde- la propuesta. Dijo entonces: "No quisimos que subsistiera una distinción entre la poesía y la vida: nuestra poesía era una manera de existir".

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