viernes, 16 de diciembre de 2011

Día para la ciencia ficción

El 16 de diciembre es un día importante para la ciencia ficción: nacen dos de los autores más relevantes del siglo pasado en cuanto a este género. En 1917, Arthur Charles Clarke, escritor inglés, y, en 1928, el estadounidense Philip Kindred Dick. Precisamente de él presentamos la exposición acerca de las particularidades de esta forma de hacer literatura:
En primer lugar, definiré lo que es la ciencia ficción diciendo lo que no es. No puede ser definida como "un relato, novela o drama ambientado en el futuro", desde el momento en que existe algo como la aventura espacial, que está ambientada en el futuro pero no es ciencia ficción; se trata simplemente de aventuras, combates y guerras espaciales que se desarrollan en un futuro de tecnología superavanzada. ¿Y por qué no es ciencia ficción? Lo es en apariencia, y Doris Lessing, por ejemplo, así lo admite. Sin embargo la aventura espacial carece de la nueva idea diferenciadora que es el ingrediente esencial. Por otra parte, también puede haber ciencia ficción ambientada en el presente: los relatos o novelas de mundos alterno. De modo que si separamos la ciencia ficción del futuro y de la tecnología altamente avanzada, ¿a qué podemos llamar ciencia ficción?

Tenemos un mundo ficticio; este es el primer paso. Una sociedad que no existe de hecho, pero que se basa en nuestra sociedad real; es decir, esta actúa como punto de partida. La sociedad deriva de la nuestra en alguna forma, tal vez ortogonalmente, como sucede en los relatos o novelas de mundos alternos. Es nuestro mundo desfigurado por el esfuerzo mental del autor, nuestro mundo transformado en otro que no existe o que aún no existe. Este mundo debe diferenciarse del real al menos en un aspecto que debe ser suficiente para dar lugar a acontecimientos que no ocurren en nuestra sociedad o en cualquier otra sociedad del presente o del pasado. Una idea coherente debe fluir en esta desfiguración; quiero decir que la desfiguración ha de ser conceptual, no trivial o extravagante... Esta es la esencia de la ciencia ficción, la desfiguración conceptual que, desde el interior de la sociedad, origina una nueva sociedad imaginada en la mente del autor, plasmada en letra impresa y capaz de actual como un mazazo en la mente del lector, lo que llamamos el shock del no reconocimiento. Él sabe que la lectura no se refiere a su mundo real.

Ahora tratemos de separar la fantasía de la ciencia ficción. Es imposible, y una rápida reflexión nos lo demostrará. Fijémonos en los personajes dotados de poderes paranormales; fijémonos en los mutantes que Ted Sturgeon plasma en su maravilloso Más que humano. Si el lector cree que tales mutantes pueden existir, considerará la novela de Sturgeon como ciencia ficción. Si, al contrario, opina que los mutantes, como los brujos y los ladrones, son criaturas imaginarias, leerá una novela de fantasía. La fantasía trata de aquello que la opinión general considera imposible; la ciencia ficción trata de aquello que la opinión general considera posible bajo determinadas circunstancias. Esto es, en esencia, un juicio arriesgado, puesto que no es posible saber objetivamente lo que es posible y lo que no lo es, creencias subjetivas por parte del autor y del lector.

Ahora definiremos lo que es la buena ciencia ficción. La desfiguración conceptual (la idea nueva, en otras palabras) debe ser auténticamente nueva, o una nueva variación sobre otra anterior, y ha de estimular el intelecto de lector; tiene que invadir su mente y abrirla a la posibilidad de algo que hasta entonces no había imaginado. "Buena ciencia ficción" es un término apreciativo, no algo objetivo, aunque pienso objetivamente que existe algo como la buena ciencia ficción.

Creo que el doctor Willis McNelly, de la Universidad del estado de California, en Fullerton, acertó plenamente cuando afirmó que el verdadero protagonista de un relato o de una novela es una idea y no una persona. Si la ciencia ficción es buena, la idea es nueva, es estimulante y, tal vez lo más importante, desencadena una reacción en cadena de ideas-ramificaciones en la mente del lector, podríamos decir que libera la mente de este hasta el punto que empieza a crear, como la del autor. La ciencia ficción es creativa e inspira creatividad, lo que no sucede, por lo común, en la narrativa general. Los que leemos ciencia ficción (ahora hablo como lector, no como escritor) lo hacemos porque nos gusta experimentar esta reacción en cadena de ideas que provoca en nuestras mentes algo que leemos, algo que comporta una nueva idea; por tanto, la mejor ciencia ficción tiende en último extremo a convertirse en una colaboración entre autor y lector en la que ambos crean... y disfrutan haciéndolo: el placer es el esencial y definitivo ingrediente de la ciencia ficción, al placer de descubrir la novedad.

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