lunes, 28 de septiembre de 2009

Lenguaje y género, comparecer desde la diferencia. El caso de Lemebel

La lengua existe, entre otras cosas, como sistema de signos de los que nos apropiamos cada vez que tomamos la palabra, en el habla o la escritura, mediante diferentes procedimientos: cuando conjugamos los verbos según nuestra circunstancia y entonces organizamos la enunciación desde nuestro centro yo-aquí-ahora; cuando usamos ciertos índices de tiempo o espacio, como "ayer", "eso", "después" –todas expresiones cuya referencia depende de la situación de habla–; o cuando tomamos, de entre todo el léxico, las palabras y estructuras que mejor nos sirven para expresar lo que queremos.

Las posibilidades que ofrece el lenguaje son muchas y eso nos da un amplio margen para la elección personal: hay quienes tienen un estilo más barroco y recargado, hay quienes son llanos y breves, hay quienes prefieren un tono coloquial... Sin embargo, solemos emplear la lengua de una forma previsible y bastante elemental. La mayoría de nosotros innova poco: a lo sumo, sugerimos alguno que otro neologismo para dar cuenta de una realidad novedosa (en el último tiempo, el caso de "chatear"), siempre que consigamos una extensa aceptación de parte de los demás.

Pero hay una minoría que se distingue por usar el lenguaje de forma diferente, sorpresiva, inédita: los escritores. Los escritores llevan el lenguaje a sus extremos, lo fuerzan para hacerle transmitir contenidos que antes no había podido expresar, lo moldean para adaptarlo a nuevas ideas. Claro que tienen, además, otras habilidades: plantean historias con cierto encanto, cierto ritmo, cierta profundidad. Pero su especialidad es el manejo hábil, y muchas veces audaz, del lenguaje.

Tomemos el caso del autor chileno Pedro Lemebel, que trabaja con el idioma de una forma totalmente disruptiva. El caso de subversión más claro en los libros de Lemebel (entre los que se pueden citar Loco afán –libro de crónicas– o La esquina es mi corazón) pasa por la aplicación no convencional de pronombres, artículos, sustantivos y adjetivos a determinados referentes.

En español, el sistema de género es binario, los sustantivos (y, en consecuencia, los pronombres, los artículos, los adjetivos) tienen solo dos opciones: ser femeninos o masculinos. En la mayoría de los casos, estas alternativas serán asignadas según motivos extralingüísticos: por ejemplo, la condición sexual desde el punto de vista biológico.

Sin embargo, Pedro Lemebel –que toma por protagonistas a homosexuales y travestis– se caracteriza por la falta de disciplina para seguir esta convención y altera el uso normal de los géneros en nuestro idioma. Sus personajes –que no se sienten ni hombres completos ni mujeres cabales– buscan paliar este déficit de representación lingüística –de no reconocer como distintos a sujetos cuya subjetividad de género es diferente de su condición sexual biológica– acudiendo a la alternancia: hacen referencia a sí mismos y a los demás travestis tanto de forma masculina como femenina. Por ejemplo:
Y cómo te van a ver si uno es tan refea y arrastra por el mundo su desnutrición de loca tercermundista. Cómo te van a dar pelota si uno lleva esta cara de chilena asombrada frente a este Olimpo de homosexuales potentes y bien comidos [de Nueva York] que te miran con asco, como diciéndote Te hacemos el favor de traerte, indiecita, a la catedral del orgullo gay. Y uno anda tan despistada en estos escenarios...
("Crónicas de Nueva York. El bar Stonewall")

Ocurre, se podría decir, que nuestra lengua, además de ser un sistema de signos (como detectó a principios del siglo pasado el estructuralista Saussure) y además de servir para referir cosas de la realidad, es un producto social que sirve también para crearla. La lengua configura lo real y condiciona la forma en que percibimos y experimentamos lo que nos rodea.

Las categorías de la lengua se toman como categorías naturales, cuando, en realidad, reflejan una interpretación histórica del mundo y en esto tiene mucho que ver lo que imponen nuestras instituciones. El Estado, por ejemplo, solo admite clasificaciones binarias para ordenar su población y únicamente da nombres o masculinos o femeninos; la Iglesia solo acepta dos sexualidades bien definidas, y la expectativa materna y paterna, la Familia, coloca un determinado nombre al descendiente (a quien también hace participar de ciertos ritos sociales relacionados con el género, como la vestimenta o el tipo de regalos que se le hacen) guiándose solamente por la sexualidad biológica:
Una colección de apodos que ocultan el rostro bautismal; esa marca indeleble que el padre que lo sacramentó con su macha descendencia, con ese Luis junior de por vida. Sin preguntar, sin entender, sin saber si ese Alberto, Arturo o Pedro le quedaría bien al hijo mariposón que debe cargar con esa próstata de nombre hasta la tumba.
("Los mil nombres de María Camaleón")

Entonces Lemebel, para expresar su género sexual marginal y para deshacer el encasillamiento identitario, lleva la ruptura entre condición sexual biológica y subjetiva a la lengua. Más que proponer un tercer género (o una tercera categoría gramatical), más que sustraerse de la lógica binaria del lenguaje, Lemebel la sacude: se trata de dejar de pensar en términos fijos, se trata de proponer la oscilación de una identidad que no es, del todo, ni una cosa ni la otra. Así, mediante este trabajo con el significante, genera un nuevo significado y da cuenta de una singularidad que antes no tenía expresión.

La función del arte y la literatura, como sostiene la crítica Francine Masiello, es poner en evidencia contradicciones sociales y revelar tensiones que puedan existir entre el individuo y la historia oficial en relación con el pasado y la identidad. Lemebel asume esta función con desparpajo, animándose a alterar el lenguaje para defender una causa que, en su caso, es tanto personal como ideológica. Una causa que puede resumirse en el inicio de esta suerte de manifiesto:
Vadeando los géneros binarios, escurriéndose de la postal sepia de la familia y sobre todo escamoteando la vigilancia del discurso; más bien aprovechando sus intervalos y silencios (...) Me atengo a la perturbación de este aroma para comparecer con mi diferencia.
("Loco afán")

128 comentarios:

  1. respeto la opinión de Lemebel. pero la expresión binaria está correcta , porque sólo existen dos géneros masculino y femenino.
    La iglesia, algunos pueblos y la biblia hablan de que existen dos géneros y no especifica algún lenguaje para los trasvestis u homosexuales

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