martes, 28 de abril de 2009

Los Simpson ¿parte de la literatura universal?

"En cierta medida, Los Simpson ya son parte de la literatura universal y son un fenómeno que va más allá del género de la serie de televisión", sostuvo profesor Henry Keazor, de la Universidad de Frankfurt, en una entrevista con la página web de la Radio Televisión del Oeste de Alemania, en el marco de un festival literario alemán.

Sonará polémico, pero Keazor, especialista en pintura barroca, ni siquiera se considera una excepción dentro del ámbito de los historiadores del arte. Sostiene que sus colegas y él se interesan cada vez más en la televisión porque en ese espacio se crean muchas de las imágenes que imponen un sello en nuestra cultura cotidiana. En relación con Los Simpson en particular, justificó su interés diciendo que "hay una confrontación con el arte anterior para crear algo nuevo. El arte es siempre arte sobre el arte".

En favor de la tesis de este intelectual, puede decirse que, ciertamente, el uso de la parodia y la gran cantidad de referencias que el show pone en juego (hay citas a películas, canciones, hechos y frases célebres, personajes conocidos de la política, la música, el arte, la historia y el deporte) dan gran riqueza cultural a la serie y la vuelven muy representativa del paradigma hipertextual que preside los tiempos que corren. Los Simpson son, además, una reflexión lúcida sobre el mundo actual, con sus complejidades y sus contradicciones, que claramente excede el público infantil y que se anima a tratar temas ríspidos de la idiosincrasia estadounidense, de la iglesia, de la política y de la sexualidad.

Muchos críticos de cine, y muchos espectadores y aficionados, opinan que la calidad de la trama, de la elaboración de los personajes y de la factura en general de las series es hoy superior a la de los films. Los shows de señales como Sony, AXN, HBO y otras han superado, en promedio, un producto tradicionalmente tan cuidado como eran las películas. Por citar algunos ejemplos más de programas televisivos dignos de destacar, está el caso de Seinfeld, el antológico (de culto y masivo a la vez) show sobre nada; Lost, una historia que se nutrió -en su concepción al menos- de referencias a El señor de las moscas y Robinson Crusoe, o la merecidísimamente premiada Los Soprano, la historia de una familia de la mafia posmoderna.

Más allá de la pregunta por dónde queda el límite entre lo que es cultura y lo que no, vuelve a surgir la cuestión de si masividad y arte son dimensiones que se excluyen, y la cuestión de si el éxito comercial de una obra o pieza invalida necesariamente lo artístico (lo renovador, lo profundo, lo movilizante) que esa obra o pieza pueda portar. Por lo pronto, varias de las series de televisión actuales (productos indudablemente comerciales y masivos) están pudiendo contar historias de ficción mejor que el cine y -tal vez, incluso- que las novelas de hoy.

Este tema lo seguimos discutiendo acá: http://foros.librosenred.com/viewtopic.php?t=1381

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  1. Un artículo publicado el sábado en la Revista Ñ, del diario argentino Clarín, desarrolla la misma idea de que la mejor ficción pasa hoy en día por las series televisivas: http://www.revistaenie.clarin.com/notas/2009/07/11/_-01955701.htm

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