jueves, 15 de octubre de 2015

Escritores por su nombre

Los escritores no siempre dan la cara. O, mejor dicho, no siempre dan su verdadero nombre, aquel con el que se los puede ubicar en los registros oficiales, aquel que portan como ciudadanos del mundo.
Decalcomanía (1966), de René Magritte
Se trata de un recurso antiguo: publicar bajo un seudónimo para enmarascarar el real. Algunos de estos falsos nombres están tan consolidados que si nos dijeran los originales dudaríamos. ¿De verdad que los autores chilenos Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga y Neftalí Ricardo Reyes ganaron cada uno un Premio Nobel? ¡Claro, si son nada menos que Gabriela Mistral y Pablo Neruda! ¿Es cierto que uno de los narradores más clásicos de la literatura infantil, creador de personajes instaladísimos, que todos conocemos aunque no hayamos leído los libros, se llamaba Samuel Langhorne Clemens? ¡Sí, si ese era nombre real de Mark Twain, padre de Tom Saywer?

La lista sigue con Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), Clarín (Leopoldo García-Alas), Rubén Darío (Félix Rubén García Sarmiento) o Stendhal (Marie-Henri Beyle), por citar unos pocos más.

Los motivos pueden ser varios. Uno, hacerse conocer por un nombre más memorable, si uno tiene un apellido muy común: así, José Martínez Ruiz se convierte en Azorín. Pero la mayoría tiene que ver con protegerse ocultando la propia condición, por ejemplo la de sacerdote (fray Gabriel Téllez, de seudónimo Tirso de Molina) o la de mujer, sobre todo en el pasado (el caso de George Sand). Y también por seguridad personal: Quevedo firmaba El licenciado Todo-se-sabe cuando ataca a un poderoso adversario, Lisón Biedma.

En algún punto, todo tiene que ver con poder escribir sin presiones. Y el extremo de esto es la escritura enmancipada de estilos prestigiosos y de temas serios, la creación por pura diversión y por puro deseo de experimentar, con una libertad que el nombre propio no habilita. Y aquí podemos citar a un dúo literario solo armado, por los argentinos Adolfo Bioy Casares y Jorge Luis Borges, para la escritura paródica, que lanzaba obras (cuentos policiales) al mundo bajo el nombre Honorio Bustos Domecq, un personaje a su vez que tenía toda una biografía propia: nacido en Pujato, escritor precoz, apasionado por las historias de detectives…

Tomando este recurso de la seudonomia y aplicándolo a otras actividades, ¿qué seudónimo elegirían para ustedes? ¿Qué se animarían a hacer, o a ser, si pudieran hacerlo bajo otro nombre?

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