jueves, 25 de febrero de 2010

Sobre verdad y ficción, J. J. Saer

"El rechazo escrupuloso de todo elemento ficticio no es un criterio de verdad. Puesto que el concepto mismo de verdad es incierto y su definición integra elementos dispares y aun contradictorios, es la verdad como objetivo unívoco del texto y no solamente la presencia de elementos ficticios lo que merece, cuando se trata del género biográfico o autobiográfico, una discusión minuciosa. Lo mismo podemos decir del género, tan de moda en la actualidad, llamado, con certidumbre excesiva, non-fiction: su especificidad se basa en la exclusión de todo rastro ficticio, pero esa exclusión no es de por sí garantía de veracidad. Aun cuando la intención de veracidad sea sincera y los hechos narrados rigurosamente exactos sólo que no siempre es así sigue existiendo el obstáculo de la autenticidad de las fuentes, de los criterios interpretativos y de las turbulencias de sentido propios a toda construcción verbal. Estas dificultades, familiares en lógica y ampliamente debatidas en el campo de las ciencias humanas, no parecen preocupar a los practicantes felices de la non-fiction. Las ventajas innegables de una vida mundana como la de Truman Capote no deben hacernos olvidar que una proposición, por no ser ficticia, no es automáticamente verdadera.

Podemos por lo tanto afirmar que la verdad no es necesariamente lo contrario de la ficción, y que cuando optamos por la práctica de la ficción no lo hacemos con el propósito turbio de tergiversar la verdad. En cuanto a la dependencia jerárquica entre verdad y ficción, según la cual la primera poseería una positividad mayor que la segunda, es desde luego, en el plano que nos interesa, una mera fantasía moral. Aun con la mejor buena voluntad, aceptando esa jerarquía y atribuyendo a la verdad el campo de la realidad objetiva y a la ficción la dudosa expresión de lo subjetivo, persistirá siempre el problema principal, es decir la indeterminación de que sufren no la ficción subjetiva, relegada al terreno de lo inútil y caprichoso, sino la supuesta verdad objetiva y los géneros que pretenden representarla. Puesto que autobiografía, biografía, y todo lo que puede entrar en la categoría de non-fiction, la multitud de géneros que vuelven la espalda a la ficción, han decidido representar la supuesta verdad objetiva, son ellos quienes deben suministrar las pruebas de su eficacia. Esta obligación no es fácil de cumplir: todo lo que es verificable en este tipo de relatos es en general anecdótico y secundario, pero la credibilidad del relato y su razón de ser peligran si el autor abandona el plano de lo verificable."

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